SleekXMPP Quickstart - Echo Bot¶
If you have not yet installed SleekXMPP, do so now by either checking out a version from Github, or installing it using pip or easy_install.
pip install sleekxmpp # Or: easy_install sleekxmpp
As a basic starting project, we will create an echo bot which will reply to any messages sent to it. We will also go through adding some basic command line configuration for enabling or disabling debug log outputs and setting the username and password for the bot.
For the command line options processing, we will use the built-in optparse module and the getpass module for reading in passwords.
To get started, here is a brief outline of the structure that the final project will have:
#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- import sys import logging import getpass from optparse import OptionParser import sleekxmpp '''Here we will create out echo bot class''' if __name__ == '__main__': '''Here we will configure and read command line options''' '''Here we will instantiate our echo bot''' '''Finally, we connect the bot and start listening for messages'''
XMPP requires support for UTF-8 and so SleekXMPP must use UTF-8 as well. In Python3 this is simple because Unicode is the default string type. For Python2.6+ the situation is not as easy because standard strings are simply byte arrays and use ASCII. We can get Python to use UTF-8 as the default encoding by including:
if sys.version_info < (3, 0): reload(sys) sys.setdefaultencoding('utf8')
Until we are able to ensure that SleekXMPP will always use Unicode in Python2.6+, this may cause issues embedding SleekXMPP into other applications which assume ASCII encoding.
Creating the EchoBot Class¶
There are three main types of entities within XMPP — servers, components, and clients. Since our echo bot will only be responding to a few people, and won’t need to remember thousands of users, we will use a client connection. A client connection is the same type that you use with your standard IM client such as Pidgin or Psi.
SleekXMPP comes with a ClientXMPP class which we can extend to add our message echoing feature. ClientXMPP requires the parameters jid and password, so we will let our EchoBot class accept those as well.
class EchoBot(sleekxmpp.ClientXMPP): def __init__(self, jid, password): super(EchoBot, self).__init__(jid, password)
Handling Session Start¶
The XMPP spec requires clients to broadcast its presence and retrieve its roster (buddy list) once it connects and establishes a session with the XMPP server. Until these two tasks are completed, some servers may not deliver or send messages or presence notifications to the client. So we now need to be sure that we retrieve our roster and send an initial presence once the session has started. To do that, we will register an event handler for the session_start event.
def __init__(self, jid, password): super(EchoBot, self).__init__(jid, password) self.add_event_handler('session_start', self.start)
Since we want the method self.start to execute when the session_start event is triggered, we also need to define the self.start handler.
def start(self, event): self.send_presence() self.get_roster()
Not sending an initial presence and retrieving the roster when using a client instance can prevent your program from receiving presence notifications or messages depending on the XMPP server you have chosen.
Our event handler, like every event handler, accepts a single parameter which typically is the stanza that was received that caused the event. In this case, event will just be an empty dictionary since there is no associated data.
The second requirement is fulfilled using get_roster, which will send an IQ stanza requesting the roster to the server and then wait for the response. You may be wondering what get_roster returns since we are not saving any return value. The roster data is saved by an internal handler to self.roster, and in the case of a ClientXMPP instance to self.client_roster. (The difference between self.roster and self.client_roster is that self.roster supports storing roster information for multiple JIDs, which is useful for components, whereas self.client_roster stores roster data for just the client’s JID.)
It is possible for a timeout to occur while waiting for the server to respond, which can happen if the network is excessively slow or the server is no longer responding. In that case, an IQTimeout is raised. Similarly, an IQError exception can be raised if the request contained bad data or requested the roster for the wrong user. In either case, you can wrap the get_roster() call in a try/except block to retry the roster retrieval process.
The XMPP stanzas from the roster retrieval process could look like this:
<iq type="get"> <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster" /> </iq> <iq type="result" to="email@example.com" from="example.com"> <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster"> <item jid="firstname.lastname@example.org" subscription="both" /> </query> </iq>
Responding to Messages¶
Now that an EchoBot instance handles session_start, we can begin receiving and responding to messages. Now we can register a handler for the message event that is raised whenever a messsage is received.
def __init__(self, jid, password): super(EchoBot, self).__init__(jid, password) self.add_event_handler('session_start', self.start) self.add_event_handler('message', self.message)
The message event is fired whenever a <message /> stanza is received, including for group chat messages, errors, etc. Properly responding to messages thus requires checking the 'type' interface of the message stanza object. For responding to only messages addressed to our bot (and not from a chat room), we check that the type is either normal or chat. (Other potential types are error, headline, and groupchat.)
def message(self, msg): if msg['type'] in ('normal', 'chat'): msg.reply("Thanks for sending:\n%s" % msg['body']).send()
Let’s take a closer look at the .reply() method used above. For message stanzas, .reply() accepts the parameter body (also as the first positional argument), which is then used as the value of the <body /> element of the message. Setting the appropriate to JID is also handled by .reply().
Another way to have sent the reply message would be to use send_message, which is a convenience method for generating and sending a message based on the values passed to it. If we were to use this method, the above code would look as so:
def message(self, msg): if msg['type'] in ('normal', 'chat'): self.send_message(mto=msg['from'], mbody='Thanks for sending:\n%s' % msg['body'])
Whichever method you choose to use, the results in action will look like this:
<message to="email@example.com" from="firstname.lastname@example.org" type="chat"> <body>Hej!</body> </message> <message to="email@example.com" type="chat"> <body>Thanks for sending: Hej!</body> </message>
XMPP does not require stanzas sent by a client to include a from attribute, and leaves that responsibility to the XMPP server. However, if a sent stanza does include a from attribute, it must match the full JID of the client or some servers will reject it. SleekXMPP thus leaves out the from attribute when replying using a client connection.
Command Line Arguments and Logging¶
While this isn’t part of SleekXMPP itself, we do want our echo bot program to be able to accept a JID and password from the command line instead of hard coding them. We will use the optparse module for this, though there are several alternative methods, including the newer argparse module.
We want to accept three parameters: the JID for the echo bot, its password, and a flag for displaying the debugging logs. We also want these to be optional parameters, since passing a password directly through the command line can be a security risk.
if __name__ == '__main__': optp = OptionParser() optp.add_option('-d', '--debug', help='set logging to DEBUG', action='store_const', dest='loglevel', const=logging.DEBUG, default=logging.INFO) optp.add_option("-j", "--jid", dest="jid", help="JID to use") optp.add_option("-p", "--password", dest="password", help="password to use") opts, args = optp.parse_args() if opts.jid is None: opts.jid = raw_input("Username: ") if opts.password is None: opts.password = getpass.getpass("Password: ")
Since we included a flag for enabling debugging logs, we need to configure the logging module to behave accordingly.
if __name__ == '__main__': # .. option parsing from above .. logging.basicConfig(level=opts.loglevel, format='%(levelname)-8s %(message)s')
Connecting to the Server and Processing¶
- There are three steps remaining until our echo bot is complete:
- We need to instantiate the bot.
- The bot needs to connect to an XMPP server.
- We have to instruct the bot to start running and processing messages.
if __name__ == '__main__': # .. option parsing and logging steps from above xmpp = EchoBot(opts.jid, opts.password) xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0030') # Service Discovery xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0199') # Ping
If the EchoBot class had a hard dependency on a plugin, we could register that plugin in the EchoBot.__init__ method instead.
If you are using the OpenFire server, you will need to include an additional configuration step. OpenFire supports a different version of SSL than what most servers and SleekXMPP support.
import ssl xmpp.ssl_version = ssl.PROTOCOL_SSLv3
Now we’re ready to connect and begin echoing messages. If you have the package dnspython installed, then the sleekxmpp.clientxmpp.ClientXMPP() method will perform a DNS query to find the appropriate server to connect to for the given JID. If you do not have dnspython, then SleekXMPP will attempt to connect to the hostname used by the JID, unless an address tuple is supplied to sleekxmpp.clientxmpp.ClientXMPP().
if __name__ == '__main__': # .. option parsing & echo bot configuration if xmpp.connect(): xmpp.process(block=True) else: print('Unable to connect')
For Google Talk users withouth dnspython installed, the above code should look like:
if __name__ == '__main__': # .. option parsing & echo bot configuration if xmpp.connect(('talk.google.com', 5222)): xmpp.process(block=True) else: print('Unable to connect')
To begin responding to messages, you’ll see we called sleekxmpp.basexmpp.BaseXMPP.process() which will start the event handling, send queue, and XML reader threads. It will also call the sleekxmpp.plugins.base.base_plugin.post_init() method on all registered plugins. By passing block=True to sleekxmpp.basexmpp.BaseXMPP.process() we are running the main processing loop in the main thread of execution. The sleekxmpp.basexmpp.BaseXMPP.process() call will not return until after SleekXMPP disconnects. If you need to run the client in the background for another program, use block=False to spawn the processing loop in its own thread.
Before 1.0, controlling the blocking behaviour of sleekxmpp.basexmpp.BaseXMPP.process() was done via the threaded argument. This arrangement was a source of confusion because some users interpreted that as controlling whether or not SleekXMPP used threads at all, instead of how the processing loop itself was spawned.
The statements xmpp.process(threaded=False) and xmpp.process(block=True) are equivalent.
The Final Product¶
Here then is what the final result should look like after working through the guide above. The code can also be found in the SleekXMPP examples directory.
You can run the code using:
python echobot.py -d -j firstname.lastname@example.org
which will prompt for the password and then begin echoing messages. To test, open your regular IM client and start a chat with the echo bot. Messages you send to it should be mirrored back to you. Be careful if you are using the same JID for the echo bot that you also have logged in with another IM client. Messages could be routed to your IM client instead of the bot.
#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- """ SleekXMPP: The Sleek XMPP Library Copyright (C) 2010 Nathanael C. Fritz This file is part of SleekXMPP. See the file LICENSE for copying permission. """ import sys import logging import getpass from optparse import OptionParser import sleekxmpp # Python versions before 3.0 do not use UTF-8 encoding # by default. To ensure that Unicode is handled properly # throughout SleekXMPP, we will set the default encoding # ourselves to UTF-8. if sys.version_info < (3, 0): reload(sys) sys.setdefaultencoding('utf8') else: raw_input = input class EchoBot(sleekxmpp.ClientXMPP): """ A simple SleekXMPP bot that will echo messages it receives, along with a short thank you message. """ def __init__(self, jid, password): sleekxmpp.ClientXMPP.__init__(self, jid, password) # The session_start event will be triggered when # the bot establishes its connection with the server # and the XML streams are ready for use. We want to # listen for this event so that we we can initialize # our roster. self.add_event_handler("session_start", self.start) # The message event is triggered whenever a message # stanza is received. Be aware that that includes # MUC messages and error messages. self.add_event_handler("message", self.message) def start(self, event): """ Process the session_start event. Typical actions for the session_start event are requesting the roster and broadcasting an initial presence stanza. Arguments: event -- An empty dictionary. The session_start event does not provide any additional data. """ self.send_presence() self.get_roster() def message(self, msg): """ Process incoming message stanzas. Be aware that this also includes MUC messages and error messages. It is usually a good idea to check the messages's type before processing or sending replies. Arguments: msg -- The received message stanza. See the documentation for stanza objects and the Message stanza to see how it may be used. """ if msg['type'] in ('chat', 'normal'): msg.reply("Thanks for sending\n%(body)s" % msg).send() if __name__ == '__main__': # Setup the command line arguments. optp = OptionParser() # Output verbosity options. optp.add_option('-q', '--quiet', help='set logging to ERROR', action='store_const', dest='loglevel', const=logging.ERROR, default=logging.INFO) optp.add_option('-d', '--debug', help='set logging to DEBUG', action='store_const', dest='loglevel', const=logging.DEBUG, default=logging.INFO) optp.add_option('-v', '--verbose', help='set logging to COMM', action='store_const', dest='loglevel', const=5, default=logging.INFO) # JID and password options. optp.add_option("-j", "--jid", dest="jid", help="JID to use") optp.add_option("-p", "--password", dest="password", help="password to use") opts, args = optp.parse_args() # Setup logging. logging.basicConfig(level=opts.loglevel, format='%(levelname)-8s %(message)s') if opts.jid is None: opts.jid = raw_input("Username: ") if opts.password is None: opts.password = getpass.getpass("Password: ") # Setup the EchoBot and register plugins. Note that while plugins may # have interdependencies, the order in which you register them does # not matter. xmpp = EchoBot(opts.jid, opts.password) xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0030') # Service Discovery xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0004') # Data Forms xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0060') # PubSub xmpp.register_plugin('xep_0199') # XMPP Ping # If you are working with an OpenFire server, you may need # to adjust the SSL version used: # xmpp.ssl_version = ssl.PROTOCOL_SSLv3 # If you want to verify the SSL certificates offered by a server: # xmpp.ca_certs = "path/to/ca/cert" # Connect to the XMPP server and start processing XMPP stanzas. if xmpp.connect(): # If you do not have the dnspython library installed, you will need # to manually specify the name of the server if it does not match # the one in the JID. For example, to use Google Talk you would # need to use: # # if xmpp.connect(('talk.google.com', 5222)): # ... xmpp.process(block=True) print("Done") else: print("Unable to connect.")